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  • Effects of Monolingual and Bilingual Dictionaries on Chinese ESL Learners’ Vocabulary Learning

    发布时间:2020-08-26 来源:https://www.boshuolunwen123.com  作者:佚名

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    Department of English Language and Literature
    Applied English Language Studies Unit

     

    Effects of Monolingual and Bilingual Dictionaries
    on
    Chinese ESL Learners’ Vocabulary Learning

    by
    ???


    Dissertation submitted in part fulfilment of the degree of
    Master of Arts of the University of Liverpool


    September 2016
    Abstract


    Vocabulary learning plays an important role in second language acquisition, especially in the process of learning English as a foreign language. Acquiring new words is a primary concern for most Chinese students who are learning English as a Second Language (ESL). Dictionary is inevitable in English learning in improving one’s English. The choice of the dictionary is very important. It is necessary for the Chinese ESL learners to choose suitable dictionaries. How to master a large number of target language vocabulary becomes the first problem the learner must consider.
    In this dissertation, we are going to study the following questions: Which dictionary will have a better effect on Chinese ESL Learners’ vocabulary learning, the monolingual dictionary or the bilingual dictionary? And which dictionary will stimulate the Chinese ESL learners more in their interest, confidence and learning attitude?
    The participants in this study are 40 pre-sessional Chinese ESL students in Liverpool University, who are aged over 18 and are from a same class. The participants will be divided into 2 groups according to the pre-test results. Different dictionaries will be given to the two groups together with the learning material will be given to the learners. After two month, a post-test will be given to the two groups of learners. And the average score will be calculated. Questionnaire will also be given to indicate the preference of the learners and 4 volunteer students are going to be interviewed and to explain their own opinions about using monolingual and bilingual dictionaries.
    In conclusion, this dissertation is expected to explore how monolingual and bilingual dictionaries will affect Chinese ESL learners’ vocabulary through the three sets of data which are collected via tests, questionnaires and interviews. By analyzing the results, we finally come to a conclusion that compared with the bilingual dictionary, the monolingual dictionary will have a better effect on Chinese ESL Learners’ vocabulary learning; and compared with the bilingual dictionary, the monolingual dictionary will stimulate the Chinese ESL learners more in their interest, confidence and learning attitude.
    There are still limitations in this study. More tools should be applied in a study to get supplementary and accurate information and more students from different countries should be studied for possible future developments.


    Declaration


    This work is original and has not been submitted previously in support of any degree, qualification or course.

     

     

    John Graham Ethelston

    Table of Contents
    Abstract
    Declaration
    Acknowledgements
    Table of Contents
    Figures and Tables

    Chapter 1:  Introduction              
    Chapter 2:  Research Background           
    2.1  An overview of English Dictionaries            
    2.1.1  Definition of Dictionary
    2.1.2  Types of Dictionaries
    2.1.3  Content of English Dictionaries
    2.1.4  Use of English Dictionaries
    2.1.5  Differences between monolingual English dictionary and bilingual English dictionary
    2.1.6  Description of Dictionaries Applied in the Study
    2.1.6.1 Description of Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
    2.1.6.2 Description of Macmillan English-Chinese Dictionary for Advanced Learners
    2.2  Vocabulary Learning
    2.2.1  Definition
    2.2.2  Types of Vocabulary
    2.2.3  Learning Strategies of Developing Vocabulary
    2.2.4  Importance of Vocabulary
    2.3  A Relevant Existing Studies            
    2.3.1  Monolingual Learner's Dictionaries           
     2.3.2  Bilingual Learner's Dictionaries          
     2.3.3  Related Studies about Monolingual and Bilingual Dictionaries    2.3.4  Lack in these studies
    2.3.2  Related Studies about Monolingual and Bilingual Dictionaries

    Chapter 3:  Methodology      
    3.1  Introduction          
    3.2  Participants
    3.3  Instruments and Procedures         
    3.3.1  Instruments
    3.3.2  Procedures
    3.3.2.1  Data Collection
    3.2.2.2  Data Analysis

    Chapter 4:  Results and Discussion      
    4.1  Introduction        
    4.2  Results    
    4.3  Discussion          

    Chapter 5:  Conclusions and Implications      
    5.1  Conclusion
    5.2  Pedagogical Implications
    5.3  Suggestion for Further Studies

    References          

    Appendix 1:     
    Appendix 2:             
    Appendix 3:               
    Appendix 4:                
    Appendix 5:               
    Appendix 6:             

    Figures and Tables
    Figures  3.1  A        

       3.2  T      

    Tables
       4.1  O
       4.2  C

    Other Materies


    Acknowledgements

    I am indebted to Dr. Sue Thompson, my supervisor.  First, she enthused me with her lucid module on Discourse Analysis.  Her correction of an initial assignment on political speeches gave me valuable insight into how to proceed with the present work.  Second, she showed enthusiasm for my project right from the start.  This was matched with perceptive comments that constantly pointed me in the right direction. 

    I would also like to express sincere thanks to Geoff Thompson.  His writing on the topic of evaluation and modality fascinated me, and I put it to good use during this dissertation.  He always replied promptly to my emailed queries regarding Appraisal.

    Many thanks are due also to Yu-Jean Jeong, a fellow MA student.  She obtained a clear distinction (75%) in a Discourse Analysis assignment, which she then let me read.  That assignment taught me many valuable lessons in how to conduct a thoughtful discussion of texts.  Thanks, Yu Jean.

    Finally, I also wish to thank Dr. Stuart Olyott, who was more than willing to open up his language to scrutiny.
    范文)自己根据内容调整


    Effects of Monolingual and Bilingual Dictionaries
    on Chinese ESL Learners’ Vocabulary Learning

    Chapter 1: Introduction

    Vocabulary is an important part of language. Mastery of vocabulary is considered to be one of the most important factors affecting language ability. Vocabulary learning plays an important role in second language acquisition, especially in the process of learning English as a foreign language.
    Vocabulary learning is one of the major challenges foreign language learners face during the process of learning a language (Ghazal, 2007). According to Ghazal, vocabulary learning plays an important role in foreign language learning. Lack of vocabulary, students will feel difficult to understand the meaning of an article, especially for the Chinese students who are learning English as a second language (ESL, for short). Acquiring new words is a primary concern for most students who are learning English as a Second Language (ESL), for whom, an extensive vocabulary is an essential component of becoming a fluent English speaker.
    Therefore, the tool of learning vocabulary - dictionary, a book which presents in an alphabetical order the words of English with information as to their spelling, pronunciation, meaning, usage, rules of grammar, and even their etymology, is inevitable in English learning. Using dictionaries is undoubtedly an efficient way of improving one’s English.
    However, dictionaries are divided into different kinds according to different rule, for example, monolingual and bilingual dictionaries, linguistic and encyclopedic dictionaries, unabridged, desk and pocket dictionaries, general and specialized dictionaries, British and American dictionaries or even early or late dictionaries. It gives a wide choice to the Chinese ESL learners.
    The choice of the dictionary is very important. As for the Chinese ESL learners, the dictionary serves as a good teacher as well as a helpful companion in vocabulary learning. A suitable dictionary is an essential and invaluable resource for ESL students at various levels, yet many of the dictionaries recommended to students are too sophisticated for students’ lexical abilities. For most Chinese ESL students, the status quo is that most of them are seriously lack in English vocabulary, which has seriously hindered their language proficiency and performance in the test. How to master a large number of target language vocabulary becomes the first problem the learner must consider. Though many Chinese ESL learners know the importance of using dictionary, they can’t make correct selection to choose the dictionaries which will benefit them more. Some learners will choose the monolingual dictionary, i.e. English-English dictionary, and some will choose the bilingual dictionary, i.e. the English-Chinese Dictionary. No matter which dictionary they are using, their fundamental purpose is to grasp more vocabulary as quickly as possible.

    Therefore, in this dissertation, we are going to study the following questions:
    1. Which dictionary will have a better effect on Chinese ESL Learners’ vocabulary learning, the monolingual dictionary or the bilingual dictionary?
    2. Which dictionary will stimulate the Chinese ESL learners more in their interest, confidence and learning attitude?

    The subjects in this study are 40 pre-sessional Chinese ESL students in Liverpool University, who are aged over 18 and are from a same class. Half of the subjects are boys and the other half are girls.

    In the first stage, different dictionaries, the monolingual dictionaries (the English-English dictionaries) and the bilingual dictionaries (the English-Chinese dictionaries), are given separately to the two groups. Group A will use the monolingual dictionaries while Group B the bilingual dictionaries. In the second stage, a list of reading material will be given to the participants. They were required to finish the reading material in a month, looking up the new words in the given dictionaries, trying to remember the new words in the reading material. In the third stage, after a month, two posttests were given to the two groups. And the scores will be calculated and analyzed. And the test scores were analyzed to compare the effect of using different dictionaries of the two groups. They were given short texts and asked to read it for meaning. In the fourth stage, questionnaire, which served as a supplementary testing material, will be given to all of the participants. They will be given 20 minutes to finish the questionnaire which contains 20 questions. The data collected from questionnaire is going to indicate the preference of the learners. The purpose of applying the questionnaire is to investigate in the overall usage of the two kinds of dictionaries in English study, students’ perceptions of the dictionary, evaluation of the differences and the dictionary users’ demand. The data collected from questionnaire indicated the preference of the participants, together with other related information. In the last stage, three volunteer participants from each group were interviewed. They were required to answer 2 questions and explain their own opinions about using monolingual and bilingual dictionaries in the interview.

    In conclusion, this dissertation is expected to explore how monolingual and bilingual dictionaries will affect Chinese ESL learners’ vocabulary through the three sets of data which are collected via tests, questionnaires and interviews. The test score can indicate the difference between the use of bilingual and monolingual dictionaries regarding ESL learners’ vocabulary learning. The questionnaires can show their attitude towards using monolingual and bilingual dictionaries. The interview can illustrate their feedback regarding the problems that they encountered. The data of the test, questionnaires, and the recording of interview will be analyzed with the SPSS V16.0 statistical analysis software. By analyzing the results which are processed by the statistical software, we finally come to a conclusion: compared with the bilingual dictionary, the monolingual dictionary will have a better effect on Chinese ESL Learners’ vocabulary learning. And compared with the bilingual dictionary, the monolingual dictionary will stimulate the Chinese ESL learners more in their interest, confidence and learning attitude.

    There are still limitations in this study, for example, advice of how to use monolingual dictionaries to teach vocabulary efficiently is not given in the study. As for the statistical software, only SPSS is used. More tools should be applied in a study to get supplementary and accurate information. The number of the students is limited in a small scale, and only in Chinese ESL learners. More students from different countries should take part in the study. There is limitation in English vocabulary test. The vocabulary test is still lack of accuracy to test learners’ mastery of vocabulary. This research is only conducted to the Chinese ESL learners, who have a relatively large vocabulary because most of them have passed the IELTS test. So the subjects are really limited. Whether the finding of the research will be suitable for other learners is still a question. Follow-up instructional studies still need to be conducted to further support the findings.


    Chapter 2: Research Background
    The chapter discusses the relevant research background of the study. It provides the theories relating to the present study. Firstly, the concept of dictionary will be introduced.

    2.1  Introduction of English Dictionaries
    2.1.1  Definition of Dictionary
    Dictionary is a book which presents in an alphabetical order the words of English with information as to their spelling, pronunciation, meaning, usage, rules of grammar, and in some ones, their etymology.
    2.1.2  Types of Dictionaries
    According to the language used, English dictionaries can be divided into two types: the monolingual dictionary and the bilingual dictionary. Monolingual dictionaries are written in one language. That is the headword or entries are defined and illustrated in the same Language. Bilingual dictionaries involve two Languages. The main entries are generally defined or explained in the same language with translation.
    According to the content, English dictionaries can also be divided into two types: the linguistic dictionary and the encyclopedic dictionary. Linguistic dictionaries aim at defining words and explaining their usage in the language. They usually cover such areas as spelling, pronunciation, meaning, grammatical function, usage and etymology, etc. these dictionaries can be monolingual and bilingual. Encyclopedic dictionaries can be further divided into encyclopedia and encyclopedic dictionaries.
    According to the size, English dictionaries can be divided into three types:  unabridged, desk and pocket dictionaries. The unabridged dictionary is a complete record of all the words in use. Such a dictionary is the most complete description of words available to us. The desk dictionary is a medium-sized one containing words ranging from 50,000 to 150,000. The pocket dictionaries have about 50,000 entries or fewer, providing only the spelling and pronunciation of each word with a few most common meanings.
    According to the usage, there are also many kinds of specialized dictionaries. Special dictionaries concentrate on a particular area of language or knowledge. These dictionaries may not be very large in size, yet each contains much more detailed information on the subject than you can find in a general unabridged one.
    2.1.3  Content of English Dictionaries
    In an English dictionary, such basic parts are usually included: spelling, pronunciation, definition, usage, grammar, or even the usage notes and language notes, etymological information and other supplementary matter.
    The spelling part gives the accepted spelling for all words. The pronunciation part presents the respective standard pronunciation. The definition part is the main body of a dictionary, which gives the definitions of words. The usage usually provides usage of information. The grammar part presents various amounts of grammar information. And the usage notes and language notes, the etymological information concerning the origins of words and other supplementary matter.
    2.1.4  Use of English Dictionaries
    The users of English dictionaries can read the contents page to find out quickly what information is included in the dictionary because this page usually provides a detailed list of content, including supplementary matter. And then read the guide to the use of the dictionary, where the compilers explain in detail how to use the dictionary.

    2.1.5  Differences between monolingual English dictionary and bilingual English dictionary
    The main advantage of monolingual dictionaries is that they provide more comprehensive information about the target language. This information can include additional meanings of a target word, more examples of how the word is used in context, and, embedded in these examples, useful information about the grammatical behavior of the word. For example, in the monolingual entry for the adjective critical, below, we can see that critical has five distinct senses (=meanings), and there are multiple full-length example sentences illustrating how critical is used when it carries each of these senses. With these example sentences, idioms and collocations with the word critical are highlighted in bold, and explanations of their meanings are provided in brackets [ ]. In addition, the comparative ("more critical") and superlative ("most critical") forms of this adjective are shown at the beginning of each sense. However, it is important to emphasize that this material would not be appropriate for a beginning or intermediate reader of English.
    The chief advantages of a bilingual English dictionary are its brevity and simplicity. In a bilingual dictionary, you can look up a word from the target language (the language you are learning), and you will see a direct translation for this word in your native language, without having to navigate text in the target language that you may not easily understand. This makes a bilingual dictionary quick and easy for a learner at any level to access. In addition to the translation, a bilingual dictionary usually indicates the part of speech, gender, verb type, declension model and other grammatical clues to help a non-native speaker use the word. Other features sometimes present in bilingual dictionaries are lists of phrases, usage and style guides, verb tables, maps and grammar references. In contrast to the monolingual dictionary, a bilingual dictionary translates words and phrases instead of defining them.


    2.2  Vocabulary Acquisition
    Wilkins (1972) once said, “Without grammar, very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary, nothing can be conveyed”. According to Hedge (2000), vocabulary learning involves at least two aspects of meaning: the understanding of its denotative and connotative meaning and understanding the sense relations among words.
    Vocabulary acquisition concerns how people expand the number of words they understand when learning a new language. This includes both first and second language acquisition. Vocabulary refers to words and is divided into two types: functional words that perform a role in grammar and lexical words that provide information.
    Linguists are agreed that vocabulary acquisition is 100-percent nurture. Vocabulary is divided into four basic types: listening vocabulary, speaking vocabulary, writing vocabulary and reading vocabulary. Each type has its own conventions and words.
    It is important that a word is understood before it is used. This is important for both first and second language learners. This includes learning how to pronounce a word that is first encountered written and how to spell a word that is first encountered through hearing. Errors in both have led to spelling pronunciation and pronunciation spelling.
    Learning a second language attempts to create a parallel vocabulary to the first language. In the 19th century and in many parts of the world today, importance is placed upon grammar and structure when learning a new language. The importance of vocabulary acquisition has only more recently been recognized. Another stumbling block in second language vocabulary acquisition is the first language. This not only causes confusion in structure, but can also cause confusion in vocabulary.
    Knowing words in a first or second language is vitally important. In a first language, it allows for greater social integration and self-expression. It also gives a favorable interpretation of a person’s status. In a second language, the speaker will be able to communicate basic ideas through vocabulary even if the person does not understand how to create a grammatically-correct sentence.
    2.2.1  Definition
    The term Vocabulary usually refers to the words and phrases used in a certain language. Learning a word involves knowing its pronunciation & stress; knowing its spelling & grammar; knowing its meaning; knowing how & when to use it to express the intended meaning.
    2.2.2 Types of Vocabulary
    Vocabulary can be divided into four kinds: reading vocabulary, listening vocabulary, speaking vocabulary and writing vocabulary.
    Reading vocabulary
    A literate person’s vocabulary is all the words he or she can recognize when reading. This is generally the largest type of vocabulary simply because a reader tends to be exposed to more words by reading than by listening.
    Listening vocabulary
    A person’s listening vocabulary is all the words he or she can recognize when listening to speech. People may still understand words they were not exposed to before using cues such as tone, gestures, the topic of discussion and the social context of the conversation.
    Speaking vocabulary
    A person's speaking vocabulary is all the words he or she uses in speech. It is likely to be a subset of the listening vocabulary. Due to the spontaneous nature of speech, words are often misused. This misuse – though slight and unintentional – may be compensated by facial expressions, tone of voice.
    Writing vocabulary
    Words are used in various forms of writing from formal essays to social media feeds. Many written words do not commonly appear in speech. Writers generally use a limited set of words when communicating.
    2.2.3  Learning Strategies of Developing Vocabulary

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