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    Study of Cultivating Pragmatic Awareness in the College English Teaching(语用意识终稿2)

    发布时间:2019-03-29 来源:www.boshuolunwen123.com  作者:博硕论文辅导网

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    6.1.2 to Increase Speech Act Input     Some professors point out that the text may not catch the effect of the TV or the radio. Hence, it is proposed to introduce English films to classroom and for this students can observe the daily life of native speakers. Furthermore they can understand the connotation of the utterance and experience native speakers’ authentic performance of speech acts as well as social norms and prepare themselves for cross-cultural interaction. From this we can analyze linguistic forms of request and its pragmatic functions, their occurrence in different social contexts, and their cultural meaning. But if the method is not available teachers can advise students to read original drama, novels, newspapers, magazines as well as see films or watch TV. After reading, students could share their opinions and have a talk with each other. Thus, students could experience the difference between the linguistic forms used by native speakers and those by themselves when express certain ideas. Meanwhile, they can experience the difference between social and cultural norms.  In short, effective pragmatic input can not only help students know the language itself well, but also develops their pragmatic awareness.6.1.3 to Establish Classroom Settings for Practice     Communicative language teaching not only emphasize on providing or creating opportunities for learners to communicate but also to develop students’ pragmatic competence in spoken English.  Learners must engage in real communications so as to use English as a native speaker. In traditional classroom, teachers usually talk a lot and ask tell them the grammars in a traditional way. In this kind of lockstep classroom, students seldom have the opportunities to speak freely. When students are given the chance to speak, it is typically in response to teacher-directed questions. However, if we establish a classroom setting to let students practice by themselves, say, in pair, or in small groups, students are free from the pressure to provide quick, polished responses to the teacher, and they will elicit the information that the teachers ask them to do practice and will talk freely. Smaller groups allow the participants to be more relaxed so that they can feel free to express themselves show their feelings in a more free way.6.2 Integrating Culture into College Teaching Class    There are differences between Chinese and English-speaking countries. If Chinese students do not know the differences they will not know much about the failures in cross cultural communication.     Language and culture have influence about each other, for language is a part of culture and culture is a part of language. They combine each other everywhere. It is common in our daily life that different reactions may come out when different languages and cultures communicate. Besides the different notions of value, social norms of their different cultural backgrounds , the behavior of their society may have the same effect on crossing culture communication. So it is necessary and important for the teachers to make their students to aware about the difference between the two cultures.6.2.1 Goals of Culture Teaching    Language teaching and culture teaching are related to each other. They can not be separated. We can see that the new learners to learn a new foreign language, learning well of the language command the learning of the culture. If Chinese learners of English are not aware of the difference, they may encounter the miss understanding in the communication and may commit pragmatic failures. So the teachers must always be ready to provide knowledge of cultural background of English for the learners to experience, and in this way can eliminate the obstacles caused by the cultural difference. And in this way obtaining pragmatic competence in the language learning can become true. 6.2.2 Enhancing Awareness of Culture Differences    From above we can see that the culture difference in language learning may have a deep impact in the English learners. Many of the students may have the opinion that the process is just to trance one language into another language. And this has somehow succeeded in someplace. But it has the difficulties that the culture. Culture is different, variability, and always a source of conflict when someone enter the another culture. Some experts have claimed that culture is always the background, ready to unsettle the language learners when they expect it least, challenging their ability to make sense of the world around them. But in fact many of the students learning English are not have a clear idea about how the important impact it will have. So enhancing the awareness of culture difference is the most important thing.6.2.3 Methods to Improve Students’ Cross-Cultural Awareness    As we know the culture difference in cross communication is very important, and the students may get some help from their teachers. Therefore teachers must provide knowledge of cultural background of English for the learners. Here are some ways. First, the culture can be taught by introducing the cultural background knowledge appeared in teaching materials. In this way, cultural knowledge is closely linked with language learning, and students can obtain much useful information about cultural differences between English and Chinese. Second, comparison is another useful way of technique. Students can easily make clear the differences and similarities between the different culture through comparing and in this way can help them to intercultural awareness. In this way can make the students much aware about the culture difference and can have a more clear understanding of the text. Third, emphasis on culturally-loaded words or expressions is a good and effective way.  Many words have connotations hidden beneath their denotations. These connotations are always shaped by culture. Therefore, it is essential that the students know not only the denotation of words, but also the connotations, the associations and the communicative value. 6.3 Improving Teaching Resources    In the traditional ways of teaching, there are some problems in the materials. The text for example is often offers a model which the students can follow and use. This is a good way to learn vocabulary and the grammar teaching. The teacher first gives the students an example and then the students follow to use it to make sentences. However the learners who reproduce some wrong models. Misleading input like this can be found anywhere. Instead of let the students learn from such materials ,the English teacher should supplement or find a more appropriate materials to add to the English text books.   6.3.1 Adding Authentic Teaching Resources    Make full use of authentic materials and various teaching resources. Contrasted with the language that is artificially made up for purposes, authentic language refers to the language that is actually used in real communication. Most of Chinese students have few chances to communicate with natives, so teachers should provide students language materials involving social factors, customs and conventions so as to provide more opportunities for them to contact with real target language.  We can find these materials in original English novels, newspapers and magazines. Like Radio programs, TV programs, English movies, English web sites, they are all very useful methods for English learning, which can shorten the distance between the learners and people in English-speaking countries and arouse learners’ great interest because learners can not only touch the daily life of natives, but also further understand the connotation of the utterance and innermost feelings of people in the specific context. Teachers should choose suitable materials for the students and encourage them to exchange their view after listening or watching.6.3.2 Textbook Compilation and Adoption    The traditional text books are contains a large amount of grammars and giving little attention to culture contents. The text should take the culture contexts and to include cross cultural elements and to enable students to communicate effectively. So the desire of the text should include culturally loaded information besides the mere linguistic forms but also should choose materials involved as many as aspect of social life. In the class the teachers should take the text as a recourse book not the course book. He will make best use of the material such as magazines and the radios to add the information into the text. When having a class the teachers should let the students to express themselves out especially in a poem or a novel class. For different people may have the different opinions on such text. Our main aim in class is to make students discussion and just in this way can establish the pragmatic awareness in students.6.4 Teacher’s Self-development    Some Chinese English teachers may neglect the failure in teaching the cross cultural communication for that the teachers are not the native speakers. They will not have the idea that the language is changing all the time. English teachers may keep on learning in order to keep the latest information. Chinese English teachers should increase their teaching experience and meanwhile it is quite necessary for them to improve their linguistic and communicative competence. So the best way to make this goal come true is to develop the teacher’s self. 6.4.1 Roles and Responsibilities of Teachers’In Chinese class the teacher is the centre not only in English class but also in Chinese class. The main job of them is to teach the students how to pronounce the words and how to use the grammar to make sentences and the whole text. Nowadays the role has changed. And in the same time they have new responsibilities.As we have experienced the text given, many of them have the sufficient explanation about situation in which the language is functioning. So the teachers may have a clear purpose to explain the context and the situation of the text is talked. Furthermore sometimes it is hard to find teaching materials, so the teachers have the responsibility to find them and in this situation the teacher is just be a producer. In class in order to encourage the students to join in the practice, they may become an active designer. They should make the students to act according to the text.As for the responsibilities of the teacher, here are some of them: first the teachers should know the student’s interests, their learning styles. And this is the most important one. Second the teachers should learn the teaching recourses which may be suitable in the class teaching. Third is to have an eye on the culture differences. In this way can establish the student’s aware of the culture differences. Forth is to make the students have a near close to the material which should relevant to the student’s everyday life. And in this way, the students may be willing to join the activity.  6.4.2 Teacher’s Self-development    We have discussed the need to cultivate the students’ pragmatic awareness but in fact that many English teachers are not sure about their linguistic forms and pragmatic proficiency. So it is necessary for the teachers to improve themselves. First they should not stop study. One teacher wants to be a good teacher he has to study all the time. The language and the culture are in an open system and they are changing all the time. It is essential for the college English teachers to keep on studying so that they can keep abreast of such changes. Furthermore the teachers should do some research when they are teaching. Just through research can the teachers know the latest research? And in this way can benefit the teaching. And the teachers may get some professional training even go aboard. College English teachers can take many advantages of professional training and the exchange with teachers from other universities can broaden their horizon and can exchange the different method of teaching. In collusion teachers should continue their study and be available with the knowledge and in this way can make the teaching more refresh.    6.5 Cultivating Students’ Pragmatic Awareness in College EFL Classroom Teaching    We all know that the ultimate purpose of language learning is for successful communication, which demands both linguistic and pragmatic competence. Students who can get a high score in an English text may be not has the higher ability to use English. This illustrates that pragmatic competence can develop through teaching and should be taught. In china, students learn English mainly in the classroom. Teachers should create a environment for students to increase their use of communication strategies so that to cultivate the awareness of pragmatic.  On the other hand, teachers should help the students to adjust themselves and develop the sense of pragmatics, so as to increase their communication competence. Since pragmatic knowledge is as important as linguistic knowledge, teachers should integrate pragmatic knowledge teaching into English teaching and the following effective measure should be taken. 6.5.1 Integrating Pragmalinguistic Knowledge into Discourse Teaching    Organize colorful activities. Organize some contextualized activities can give learners opportunity to develop their own pragmatic competence subsonic. Activities that will provide different information of the target language should be considered together with English teaching in class. In this way, students can learn the actual use of English in real environment, and will be able to be aware of the cultural difference and behave as native speakers do, and these activities may prompt the learners’ own interest and enthusiasm in class to compensate for the weakness of teacher-centered teaching. So it is necessary to explore and adopt contextualized activities to improve the pragmatic competence of college English learners. And it is English teachers’ responsibility to encourage students to use English not only in but out of 0the English class, and take measure to supervise them and give help to students who really need it.6.5.2 Integrating Pragmalinguistic Knowledge into Grammar TeachingIn the grammar teaching, the majority rule which we involve is the form primarily. But in the actual utilization, most of the time the form will result with the function is inconsistent with situation. If we purely take grammatical form as basis and not act according to concrete linguistic environment, the human relations activity will be defeated. Here an example, the sentence: this is the weekend. In different situations it may express different meanings. In situation one the wife says it to her husband. It may show that maybe her husband has worked for a long time and it is time to have a rest. Including the sentence may contain the mercy of the wife shows to her husband. And in situation two the child says to his mother, we can see that in the sentence the child just show his complains about his mother. It is the weekend and it is necessary for him to get up early. We can see from the examples above that the relation ship between language forms and functions of such a complicated language can not be taught on the form of mechanical and learning. The teacher just teach the language form with the knowledge instruction, can make them in the different linguistic environment appropriate. 6.5.3 Integrating Pragmalinguistic Knowledge into Vocabulary TeachingTeach language in context. As has mentioned above, language have different meanings in different context and context includes utterance context, situational context and cultural context. Teachers should integrate the three contexts with English teaching. When explaining the meaning of words or analyzing the sentence structure, teachers should introduce the relevant linguistic context. English teachers not only introduce culture background of English, but also tell students how to eliminate the obstacles caused by cultural differences or guide them to look for relevance based on speech information under a certain context. In language expression, the teachers should pay careful attention to students’ use of words, focusing more on their proper expression of themselves under certain language context than their accurately used words and correctly made sentences.6.6 A Model of Task-based Language TeachingSome researchers have concluded that the pragmatic competence can be acquired by those second language learners through teaching from some experiments. An experiment has shown that in a short time nonnative speakers under the teaching could reach the standard of the native speakers and can be better than the ones who have learned English for a longer time but not has the knowledge of the pragmatic learning. Some scholars have explored the way to teach Pragmatic competence. Developing pragmatic awareness language learners may take the three methods they are cognitive awareness, receptive skill development,and productive use. And this model has improved later. A new model for teaching Pragmatic competence is proposed based on our understanding and teaching experience.  The new model consists of four Phases: analyzing the speech act under study by the teacher; raising Prismatic consciousness of the speech act and developing receptive skills; developing Productive skills by controlled,teacher guided Practice; employing the speech act within simulated settings.Chapter 7: Course Design 7.1 Participation and Interaction—the Core of Course Syllabus of SAI    We have discovered that the SAI has an importance in the students’ spoken English ability’ improving. And furthermore it has an more importance on the teaching class and how the teachers to let the students to act. It is largely depend on the students’ classroom participation and interaction. In this part we shall design a course to show that how the how SAI is carried out to improve students’ pragmatic competence in spoken English’s progress .7.1.1 Course Designing of “Request—Getting People to Do Things”In the class we choose a class of which the students of EFL major course and almost have the CET4 degree. Choosing these students we may have a more clear view of how the pragmatic awareness has an important impact on the English teaching. We decide to raise two classes and each class we have about forty five minutes . Our main goal is to raise the students’ pragmatic awareness of requests and increase the students’ ability of observing the native English speakers’ awareness of the pragmatic. And at last make the students be able to make the speech in a native way. To begin the course we first hand down some materials to the students which the materials contains the knowledge of pragmatic knowledge of requests. And then we teach the students about the relevant knowledge of the pragmatic in a formal way and then make a dialogue using the pragmatic knowledge. And at last we let the students to practice by them using what they have learnt in the class .7.1.2 Teaching Procedures     In order to make the students to be more aware of the impotence of the pragmatic knowledge, it is necessary for the teachers to teach the knowledge for the students and if we let the students to learn by themselves and the result may not be as well as the teachers teach them to do so . But this is not meaning that the teachers should do everything for the students they just play the role of the giddiness. The teachers should show the students the basic knowledge of the pragmatic knowledge, and to guide the students to make the dialogue and so on. And in this part, we shall show the teaching procedures . 7.1.2.1 General Warm-up and Introduction to Pragmatics In the class we may have to make the students to achieve the goal of using English in a more native way. And we decide in our class we should contain the following aspects. First let the students have an eye on the pragmatic awareness by teach them the knowledge. And second we should teach the students the most used methods in the communication . At last let the students to make speeches to catch up with the native speakers. First assess how much students already know about requesting, and if they are able to vary their requests to meet different situations? And then in order to create a list of the different utterances in English which they can use to make requests, and whether they have a clear view of the different utterances and when each is used. Last we ask some students to make speech which may contain the knowledge of the situations for each strategy . A written list of possible request strategies should be given out to students as in the followingI. Direct StrategiesWhen we express our mentions if we choose different ways to speak the result may vary greatly. As we have discussed above there are some different ways in our daily speaking. For example when we want some one to do a favor there are many ways to say . If we just want they do it we may say: “please close the door.” in the sentence we just in a plain mood. If in an explicit way we may say “I ask you to close the door”. Also we may ask the people to do the thing very much think that the outside is very cold ,then in order to keep warm we need the one to do the thing for us then we may say “I really wish you do me a favor to close the door”.II. Conventionally indirect strategiesIn the situation just image that the one in the room is a stranger and at that moment we are not familiar with him, then we want him do the thing, we may just suggest him to do so, and then we can say “how about close the door” and furthermore we may use query way “could you please close the door?” so in the situation that we may be polite to do the thing and we believe the result may be very good.III. Non-conventionally indirect strategiesSometimes we just show our strong hints in a normal way, for example if some one has forgotten to turn down the TV, so you may say “you have forgotten to turn off the TV”, but if you are in a mild hints, for an stance you do not bring the pen with you, you are shame to ask someone to lend one for you, then you may say “I forgot my pen” In the above we can see that, through the learning, the students may know that the same one sentence can be spoken in different ways, and in different ways may come the different result . People sometimes tend to use the sentence in a more polite way such as “I wish you do me a favor”. And in this way students may choose to perform in a more proper way. 7.1.2.2 Classroom practice—Participation and Interaction In this section students are required to do performance which students participate and interact. And then a series of performances are done. We divide the students into small groups which they may practice the conversation in the context. In this way they will be made familiar with the utterances of request and the situations in which each request is made. Secondly, we should create situations for students to perform the speech act of request in role plays, and let one student to require another student, in this way to improve the sense . There are two situations first ask the students to read each situation carefully, imagine they are a participant in it, then think about how they would make the request in that situation. First situation: someone ask you to come for a dinner, you can bring a bottle of wine or some flowers. And sometimes people send a thank you note to the host or hostess a few days after the event.Here is some of the students’ action:One: A: I would go now.B: Why do not you stay a little longer?A: I wish I could, but it is already so late.B: oh, it is a pity that you have to leave.A: that is a wonderful meal.B: I am glad that you enjoy it.Two: A: I really must be going now.B: but you have just got here, can not you stay a little longer?A: that is very nice of you, but I really can not.B: well, it is too bad that you have to go.A: thanks very much. It was a great party!B: it was our pleasure.Three: A: I think it is about time we got going.B: what? Won’t you have more coffee?A: I’d love to, but I have to get up early tomorrow.B: oh! I am very sorry, but I wish you could stay.A: thank you for your dinner. B: oh do not mention it. I wish you would come soon.Four:A: I really must on my way home.B: oh, not yet, you may take it on your way home.A: no, thanks all the same.B: it is a great pity that you have to go now.A: thank you very much. We really like the meal very muchB: I am very happy you like it. I hope you can come soon.And at last we tell the students how they played in the dialogue, and make a compare with the native speakers. From above we can see that the student make speech usually they may bring their mother language. So in the future the students should teach the students with the awareness of pragmatic.  7.2 Rationale of SAIWe design the course to raise EFL students’ pragmatic awareness of speech acts, and to provide students with an opportunity to practice their spoken English through the learning of speech acts. It is important for EFL teachers and curriculum designers to incorporate pragmatics into textbooks and classroom activities. Moreover, speech act input will make the learners communicate with other English speakers more appropriately and effectively . We can say that in classroom practice of spoken English in SAI, the real communicative situations should be set up so that students can perform according to different situations. We should give learners more opportunities to practice English and reduce teacher-directed discussions and other interventions by the teacher and so on.8. ConclusionIn this paper we have discovered that although the students can do well in the exam, most of them are unfamiliar with the characteristics of speech acts of English, and fail to perform English speech acts in a native way. In class under the teachers’ guide they can improve their ability of speech . So the teachers need to raise students’ pragmatic awareness of speech acts, to increase students’ speech act input and provide them with opportunities to observe native English speakers’ pragmatic behavior in the performance of speech acts. There are some ways to do so for the teachers. First the teachers may make a comparison between the native speaker and the students, then the students may find that there are a big different between them. So in this way may call the students’ interesting to learn. Furthermore the ability is not achieved in the class, so the teachers should make good use of the class, and let the students to make communication in class as much as possible. This paper has first discussed the lack of the students’ pragmatic competence, and then talked about how the teachers should do in the class to improve the students’ ability. The main purpose of this paper is to improve EFL students’ pragmatic competence. For how to improve the students’ pragmatic competence this paper shows the emphasis on the production of speech acts.

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