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    Study of Cultivating Pragmatic Awareness in the College English Teaching(语用意识终稿1)

    发布时间:2019-03-29 来源:www.boshuolunwen123.com  作者:博硕论文辅导网

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    Study of Cultivating Pragmatic Awareness in the College English Teaching(语用意识终稿1)

    CONTENTS
    CONTENTS 1
    摘要 4
    Abstract 4
    Chapter 1: Introduction 4
    1.1 Purpose of the Present Study 4
    1.2 Significance of the Research 5
    Chapter 2: Communicative Competence and Pragmatic Awareness 7
    2.1 Historical Sketch of the Notion of Communicative competence 7
    2.1.1 The Early Advancement –Chomsky and Hymes 7
    2.1.2 The latest Development –Canale & Swain, and Bachman 7
    2.2 Pragmatic Awareness in the model of Communicative competence 8
    2.2.1 Pragmalinguistic and Sociopragmatic Competence 9
    2.2.2 Illocutionary and Sociolinguistic Competence 10
    2.3 Pragmatic competence in EFL classroom teaching 11
    2.3.1 The Significance of pragmatic Competence in classroom teaching 11
    2.3.2The Pragmatic Component in Models of Communicative Competence 12
    2.3.3 Pragmatic Failure 13
    2.4 Communicative college English Teaching 14
    2.4.1 The Goal of College English Teaching 14
    2.4.2 Current Situation of College English teaching and learning 15
    2.5 Pragmatic Awareness and Enhancement of EFL Students’ Speaking Ability 16
    2.5.1 Developing Pragmatic Awareness –The Main Goal of EFL teaching 16
    2.5.2 What Do Students Need to Acquire in Order to have pragmatically Awareness in Spoken English? 17
    Chapter 3: Speech Acts and EFL Students’ Pragmatic Awareness in Spoken English 18
    3.1Functional Aspects of Speech Acts 18
    3.1.1 Classifications of Illocutionary Acts 18
    3.1.2 Functional Illustration of Illocutionary Acts 19
    3.2 Contextual Aspects of Speech Acts 20
    3.2.1 More Than One Illocutions 20
    3.2.2 Explicit and Implicit Speech Acts 21
    3.2.3 Direct and Indirect Speech Acts 22
    3.3 Sociolinguistic Aspects of Speech Acts 23
    3.3.1 Politeness 23
    3.3.2 Cross-cultural ness 25
    3.4 Choosing Appropriate Speech Act strategies 26
    Chapter 4: EFL Students’ Speech Act Competence Assessed 27
    4.1 Speech Act Strategies Analyzed 27
    4.1.1 Complaints 28
    4.1.2 Thanks 29
    4.1.3 Refusals 29
    4.1.4 Requests 30
    4.1.5 Apologies 31
    4.1.6 Speech Act Situations 32
    4.2 Method 33
    4.2.1 Subjects 33
    4.2.2 Instruments 34
    4.3 Data Analysis and Discussions 35
    4.3.1 Score Analysis 36
    4.3.2 Distribution Analysis 36
    Chapter 5: Problems on the Pragmatic Awareness of College Students an Investigation 37
    5.1 purposes 37
    5.2 procedures 38
    5.3 pragmatic-linguistic Problems 39
    5.4 Socio-pragmatic Problems 40
    5.5 Pragma-behavioral Problems 42
    5.6 Psycho-pragmatic Problems 42
    Chapter 6: Suggestion of Cultivating Pragmatic Awareness in the College EFL Classroom Teaching 44
    6.1 Guidelines of Speech Act Instruction 44
    6.1.1 to Raise Pragmatic Awareness of Speech Acts 44
    6.1.2 to Increase Speech Act Input 45
    6.1.3 to Establish Classroom Settings for Practice 46
    6.2 Integrating Culture into College Teaching Class 47
    6.2.1 Goals of Culture Teaching 47
    6.2.2 Enhancing Awareness of Culture Differences 48
    6.2.3 Methods to Improve Students’ Cross-Cultural Awareness 48
    6.3 Improving Teaching Resources 49
    6.3.1 Adding Authentic Teaching Resources 50
    6.3.2 Textbook Compilation and Adoption 51
    6.4 Teacher’s Self-development 51
    6.4.1 Roles and Responsibilities of Teachers’ 52
    6.4.2 Teacher’s Self-development 53
    6.5 Cultivating Students’ Pragmatic Awareness in College EFL Classroom Teaching 54
    6.5.1 Integrating Pragmalinguistic Knowledge into Discourse Teaching 55
    6.5.2 Integrating Pragmalinguistic Knowledge into Grammar Teaching 55
    6.5.3 Integrating Pragmalinguistic Knowledge into Vocabulary Teaching 56
    6.6 A Model of Task-based Language Teaching 57
    Chapter 7: Course Design 58
    7.1 Participation and Interaction—the Core of Course Syllabus of SAI 58
    7.1.1 Course Designing of “Request—Getting People to Do Things” 58
    7.1.2 Teaching Procedures 59
    7.2 Rationale of SAI 64
    8. Conclusion 65
    APPENDIX 66
    Bibliography 68
    Acknowledgement 71


    摘要
    随着近年来大学英语教学改革的不断深入,很多大学英语教学的教师都在探讨大学英语教学的新方法。一直以来,在大学英语教学课堂中,词汇和语法没有得到准确的认识。教师把大量的教学时间用于解释定义,教室的整个黑板上都是生僻词汇。学生仅仅是按照单词表来识记单词而不知该如何运用。
    本文是关于在大学英语教学如何培养语用意识的研究。第二章是理论分析部分。笔者主要讨论的交际能力和语用意识。在不重视沟通与语用意识的现状中,笔者为本文涉及到的主要概念进行了定义。在大学英语教学中,培养学生的语用意识以及教授语用的原则是非常重要的。
    第三章探讨了言语行为能力是语用意识的一个方面,本章从言语行为的语言 语用和社会语用两方面出发,分析了言语行为的组成和功用,并提出了相关的言语行为策略。
    第四章给出了一些技巧,并对于学生进行了一场调查研究,对于结果进行可分析讨论。
    第五章章在对本校三个非英语专业学生进行调查问卷的基础上,旨在调查非英语专业大学生的语用意识的现状及在实际交往中语用意识方面存在的各种问题。
    第六章从不同角度对于培养学生的语用意识给出了建议。
    最后一章设计了一次讲课使学生对于语用有深刻的理解。

    关键词

    大学   英语教学  语用意识  培养
    Abstract
    With the development of College English reform, more and more research on the new teaching approaches is carried out by teachers, which have had great achievements. In recent years, vocabulary and grammar have not received the recognition it deserves in the English-teaching classroom, not that it has been characterized by any neglect in terms of quantity. A vast amount of teaching time is consumed by explanation and definition of words, classroom blackboards are often littered with masses of new lexical items, and students compile page upon page of vocabulary word-lists that they rarely have the opportunity to practice.
    This paper is the study of Cultivating Pragmatic Awareness in the College English teaching. The theoretical is given in Chapter two. I mainly discuss communicative competence and pragmatic awareness. By discriminating communication and pragmatic awareness, I offer the definition and crux of pragmatic competence. It is very important to develop pragmatic awareness in the course of forming pragmatic competence, teaching and learning pragmatic principles at the same time.
    The third part discussed that speech act ability is an important ability in pragmatic awareness. In terms of pragma-linguistic and socio-pragmatic aspects, this chapter analysis the composition and function of the speech act, then proposes the related speech act strategies.
    The forth part gives some Strategies about the speech, and we do a research of the students’ speech act and give the discussion of the research.
    Through a questionnaire of three non-English majors from our school, the fifth chapter attempts to investigate the present situation of the pragmatic awareness and the problems of the pragmatic awareness in the communication.
    The sixth part gives suggestion of Cultivating Pragmatic Awareness in the College EFL Classroom teaching from different aspects.
    We design a course to make the students to be aware of the pragmatic awareness of speech acts in the last part of the article.


    Key words
    University; English teaching; Pragmatic Awareness; Cultivating

    Chapter 1: Introduction
    1.1 Purpose of the Present Study
    Everyone who works with a second or foreign language, whether learners, teachers, or researchers, knows some funny stories about cross-cultural pragmatics-- or maybe the stories are really not that funny. From the perspective of the speaker, they may be about feeling silly, helpless, or rude; from the perspective of the listener, they may be about feeling confused, insulted, or angry. Anecdotal evidence inspires us to say that we ought to teach, as one of students of English as a second language (henceforth, ESL) said, the "secret rules" of language. Much research has gone into identifying how speakers of various languages realize speech acts, take turns, and use silence, for example, so that what our students called the secret rules are not unknown; and even if our knowledge is incomplete at this stage, could it from the basis of an informed pedagogy? In other words, is there empirical evidence that warrants the development and implementation of pedagogy of pragmatics in second and foreign language instruction? One of the central issues in second language acquisition(SLA) research is whether and how instruction influences second language development, yet in comprehensive reviews of research on this topic, reports on the effect of instruction on learners' acquisition of L2 pragmatics are conspicuously absent (Ellis, 1994). The last two decades have seen steady developments in Interlingua pragmatics (ILP). Because the vast majority of researchers have dedicated their work toward understanding L2 learners' pragmatic comprehension and production, the history of instructed ILP is brief.

    [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]  下一页So, the present paper explores this area and reports the results of a study on the effects of consciousness-raising (CR) in pragmatics, with the target features bring pragmalinguistic conventions of request.
    1.2 Significance of the Research
    In recent years, vocabulary and grammar have not received the recognition it deserves in the English-teaching classroom, not that it has been characterized by any neglect in terms of quantity. A vast amount of teaching time is consumed by explanation and definition of words, classroom blackboards are often littered with masses of new lexical items, and students compile page upon page of vocabulary word-lists that they rarely have the opportunity to practice. For college students, after several years of English learning, they should know the core of basic meaning of a word, and comprehend it in a text receptively speaking. But that is not enough. They should also control the syntactic, collocation and register aspects of a word, sufficiently to use it productively. Knowing a word means much more than knowing the Chinese equivalent for it. Knowing a word means much more than knowing the Chinese equivalent for it. Knowing a word means: knowing the degree of probability of when and where to encounter a given word and the sorts of words to be found with it, the limitations imposed on it by register, its appropriate syntactic behavior, its underlying form and derivations, the network of associations it has, its semantic features, its extended or metaphorical meanings and so on. Both teachers and students should realize that people's choice of words is constrained by the context in which they use the language, otherwise they can never use the language appropriately.(Richard, 1976)
    Chapter 2: Communicative Competence and Pragmatic Awareness
    2.1 Historical Sketch of the Notion of Communicative competence
    2.1.1 The Early Advancement –Chomsky and Hymes
    Norm. Chomsky(1968)first proposed competence as a concept in the 1960s. According to Chomsky, competence consists of the mental representation of linguistic rules that constitute the speaker-hearer's internal grammar. This grammar is implicit and is evident in the intuitive which the speaker-hearer has about the grammaticality of sentences. However, Chomsky's concept of "competence" has been criticized for being too narrow and representing a "Garden of Eden view”. D.H.Hymes (1972)argued that in addition to linguistic competence the native speaker has another rule system. That is, he knows intuitively what is socially appropriate or inappropriate and can adjust his language use to such factors as the topic, situation, and human relation involved, etc. So he expanded the concept of competence and proposed "communicative competence"(Brown, 2002:227).
    2.1.2 The latest Development –Canale & Swain, and Bachman
    After Hymes, competence becomes something that can be divided. Communicative competence becomes the hot topics of discussion. On the basis of Hymes, Canale and Swain (1980) divided communicative competence into four components: (1) grammatical competence; (2) discourse competence; (3) sociolinguistic competence; (4) strategic competence (Brown, 2002: 227). Domains of competence research become even wider than before. Particularly speech acts research led to the discovery of more speech act theory, which contributes to our understanding of second language acquisition. After Canale and Swain, Bachman made a further classification of language competence. Owing to the researches in social field, speech act, discourse analysis, anthropology, test theory, Bachman (1990) made a detailed classification of competence by including the existing knowledge of the above mentioned fields and modifying Canale and Swain’s version (Brown, 2002: 229). Bachman’s version can suit much wider fields and is more useful and explanatory. To Bachman, competence can not only be divided but also can be tested—a much wider gap exists between his intention and what Chomsky’s original meaning.
    2.2 Pragmatic Awareness in the model of Communicative competence
    Some terms are adopted in this thesis but there are some controversies about their definitions in modern linguistics. In order to understand them well, the author of this thesis thinks that it is important to clarify these definitions first.
    2.2.1 Pragmalinguistic and Sociopragmatic Competence
    Pragmatics is the study of communicative action in its sociocultural context. Communicative action includes not only speech acts—such as requesting, greeting, and so on—but also participation in conversation,
    engaging in different types of discourse, and sustaining interaction in complex speech events. Leech and Jenny Thomas(1983) proposed to subdivide pragmatics into a pragmalinguistic and sociopragmatic component.
    Pragmalinguistics addresses the relationship between linguistic forms and their functions. It refers to the resources for conveying communicative acts and relational or interpersonal meanings. Such resources include pragmatic strategies like directness and indirectness, routines, and a large range of linguistic forms, which can intensify or soften communicative acts.
    Sociopragmatics addresses the relationship between linguistic action and social structure. It was described by Leech (1983:10),  as the sociological interface of pragmatics',referring to the social perceptions underlying participants' interpretation and performance of communicative action. Speech communities differ in their assessment of speaker's and hearer's social distance and social power, their rights and obligations, and the degree of imposition involved in particular communicative acts (Takahashi&Beebe, 1993;   Blum-Kulka&House, 1989;  Olshtain, E.&Cohen, A. D, 1989).
    Since context plays inevitably at times, important role in pragmalinguistics, there is, overlap between soicopragmatics and pragmalingusitics that is difficult to unravel.
    2.2.2 Illocutionary and Sociolinguistic Competence
    Pragmatic competence subdivides into ‘illocutionary competence’ and ‘sociolinguistic competence’ (Bachman, 1996:87).  ‘Illocutionary competence’ is conceived both knowledge of speech acts and also of language functions. ‘Sociolinguistic competence’ is concerned with sensitivity to language and context, that is, with knowledge of the contextual appropriateness of the linguistic forms of realizing illocutions. It thus includes the ability to select communicative acts and appropriate strategies to implement them depending on the current status of the ‘conversational contract’ (Fraser, 1990). 
    2.3 Pragmatic competence in EFL classroom teaching
    2.3.1 The Significance of pragmatic Competence in classroom teaching
    L2 learners' pragmatic ability needs pedagogical treatment. Pragmatic competence is well-established as a part of communicative competence.
    According to Bachman (Bachman, 1990: 87),  Language competence consists of two components, "organizational competence "and "pragmatic competence". Organizational competence refers to the knowledge of linguistic units and the rules of joining them together at the levels of sentence ("grammatical competence") and discourse ("textual competence"). Pragmatic competence is made up of "illocutionary competence" and "sociolinguistic competence", with the former including "knowledge of communicative action and how to carry it out," the latter" comprising the ability to use language appropriately according to the context".
    Pragmatic principles are one of the important rules people have to observe in the process of communication. If language learners fail to take into account some sociolinguistic factors when communicating with another interlocutor, they tend to make some pragmatic deviances, which are also termed as ‘pragmatic failure’. Hence, the learners' pragmatic competence must be reasonably developed in classroom teaching.

    上一页  [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]  下一页2.3.2The Pragmatic Component in Models of Communicative Competence
    Communicative competence is the knowledge which enables someone to use a language effectively and their ability actually to use this knowledge for communication (Johnson&Johnson, 2001:62). Hymes distinguishes four sectors of communicative competence: knowledge of what is possible, feasible, appropriate and actually done (Johnson&Johnson, 2001:62). Following the presence of Hymes’ communicative competence, new reformulation has been done by linguists. Canale and Swain’s definition of communicative competence has undergone some other modifications over the years. Among them, Lyle F. Bachman’s language competence is the prominent one. Language competence is classified into two types: organizational competence and pragmatic competence. Organizational competence comprises those abilities involved in controlling the formal structure of language for producing or recognizing grammatically correct sentences, comprehending their propositional content, and ordering them to form texts. These abilities are of two types: grammatical and textual (Bachman,1999:87).Pragmatic competence includes illocutionary competence, or the knowledge of the pragmatic conventions for performing acceptable language functions, and sociolinguistic competence, or knowledge of the sociolinguistic conventions for performing language functions appropriately in a given context (Bachman, 1999:90). In Bachman’s mode, pragmatic competence has got much attention.
    2.3.3 Pragmatic Failure
    A good knowledge of a language doesn't guarantee knowing how to use it appropriately. If any factor is not paid enough attention to it, faulty utterances will occur. In pragmatics, this phenomenon is called pragmatic failure. Pragmatic failure refers to the failure resulted from faulty interpretation of the speaker's utterances and inappropriate utterances, intact manners or the expressions which do not agree with the specific environment. As the result of this failure, effect of communication cannot be satisfactory as expected, or even worse, it will cause the communication to end in failure or misunderstanding.
    2.4 Communicative college English Teaching
    2.4.1 The Goal of College English Teaching
    With the deepening of china's reform, the implementation of opening up policy and china's entry into WTO, its foreign trade has been enlarged both in depth and in volume. China is now facing an unprecedented of demand for skilful learners of English, the global language. In order to communicate with people from different cultures, Chinese students need the competence to use the English language both correctly and appropriately, which is also the ultimate goal of English language learning and teaching. In the area of the current college English teaching, a complete and independent teaching system has been formed. College English Curriculum Requirements (for trial implementation) issued by Ministry of Education in January 2004 has set new goals and targets for the teaching of college English in Chinese universities and colleges, one of which is to promote the communicative competence to meet the communication needs. Pragmatic competence, as an essential part of communicative competence, is important to maintain interpersonal relations and continuity of social activities. Therefore, it is of great significance to develop students' pragmatic competence in college English teaching.
    2.4.2 Current Situation of College English teaching and learning
    In the long process of English Language Teaching (ELT) in China, various teaching methodologies have been introduced, numerous kinds of teaching approaches, especially Communicative Approach, have contributed much to the development of English Language Teaching (ELT) in our country. Nobody can deny these contributions. But pragmatically speaking, there still exist some deficiencies: traditional English Language Teaching (ELT) focuses on the cultivation of learners' linguistic competence, ignoring the cultivation of their pragmatic competence. This dissertation sets out to examine the deficiencies in pragmatic awareness and proposes the necessity of improving students' pragmatic competence. And the dissertation argues that it is feasible to cultivate students' pragmatic competence using various teaching and learning strategies.
    2.5 Pragmatic Awareness and Enhancement of EFL Students’ Speaking Ability
    2.5.1 Developing Pragmatic Awareness –The Main Goal of EFL teaching
    Pragmatic failure is so pervasive among Chinese learners of English that it is not a rare case that a Chinese student, despite his sound knowledge of grammar, semantics and syntax, may confuse "of course" with "certainly", which have quite different pragmatic implications in different situations. It is also a common scene that a Chinese student seems to be quite uneasy and replies "No, no, you flatter me" when praised by his American teacher for a well written composition. It is also not unusual for a Chinese student to greet a foreigner with "You haven't changed much". What he says is semantically and grammatically perfect, but unfortunately is bound to spoil the situation because his utterances are pragmatically out of place.
    Since pragmatic failure constitutes a very important source of intercultural communication breakdown and it is a pervasive phenomenon among Chinese learners of English, it is worthwhile developing pragmatic awareness so that students can improve their communicative competence and achieve their goals when they are in interaction with native speakers.
    2.5.2 What Do Students Need to Acquire in Order to have pragmatically Awareness in Spoken English?
    Nowadays, people are gradually realizing how important pragmatic awareness is in communication. However, pragmatic awareness is not an innate ability, it is the one obtained through the use of language in the long process of language learning and teaching. Therefore, it is necessary to cultivate learners' pragmatic awareness in the process of spoken English. Actually, in a certain sense, learning a language is a process of cultivating pragmatic awareness of the target language. As for how to shift from traditional teaching which was used to develop linguistic skills to a new teaching approach of developing both kinds of awareness, many people have contributed to this field, but few researches specific to pragmatic awareness acquisition have been done in this field. We have mentioned some deficiencies in ELT in China; the following suggestions will be targeted on those deficiencies and on cultivating pragmatic competence for vocabulary acquisition. Firstly, cultivating pragmatic awareness through communicative activities; secondly, paying attention to cultural differences; thirdly, paying attention to the associative meaning; fourthly, making full use of context.
    Chapter 3: Speech Acts and EFL Students’ Pragmatic Awareness in Spoken English
    3.1Functional Aspects of Speech Acts
    3.1.1 Classifications of Illocutionary Acts
    The illocutionary act can be deemed as the making of a statement, offer, promise, request, etc. in uttering a sentence by virtue of the conventional force associated with it.
    Different speech acts can generate different discourse modes and various linguistic forms. In the case of which, there are different kinds of illocutionary acts.
    Based on Austin’s classification, Searle (1969) proposes a five-category  classification of illocutionary acts: assertives, directives,   commissives, expressives, and declaratives. In emphasizing directives in the taxonomy of speech acts, he first observed and pointed out the phenomenon of indirect speech acts, to which he explains as acts performed to mean more than what we say literally.
    Assertives: Speech acts that represent a state of affairs: assertions, statements, claims, hypotheses, descriptions, and suggestions.

    上一页  [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]  下一页Directives: Speech acts intended to get the addressee to carry out an action: Commands, requests, challenges, invitations, entreaties, and dares.
    Commissives: Speech acts that commit a speaker to a course of action: Promises, pledges, threats, and vows.
    Expressives: Speech acts that indicate the speaker's psychological state or attitude: greetings, apologies, congratulations, condolences, and thanksgivings.
    Declaratives: Speech acts that bring about the state of airs they name: Blessings, firings, baptisms, arrests, marrying, declaring a mistrial.
    3.1.2 Functional Illustration of Illocutionary Acts
    The speech act theory treats an utterance as an act performed by a speaker in a context. This act is capable of producing some consequences. There are three basic senses in which one is doing something while saying something, and the three kinds of acts are performed simultaneously: locutionary act, illocutionary act, and perlocutionary .
    The locutionary act is the utterance of the sentence with determinate sense and reference, while the perlocutionary act is bring about effects on the audience by means of uttering the sentence, such efforts being special to the circumstances of the utterance.
    The illocutionary act is the major factor in deciding the meaning of the utterance and the major object in the exploration of illocutionary force, which is quite significant in studying speech act theory, also meaningful in modern pragmatic area.
    Look at an example as follows:
    A: Could you reach the salt?
    B: Yes. (B passes the salt.)
    The sentence seems to be a question of the hearer’s ability to reach the salt. Indeed, the illocutionary act is a request of the hearer to pass the salt, in base of which the hearer may pass the salt or refuse to comply with the request. We can conclude that the illocutionary act is the core and destination ultimately in the speech act,
    In a word, the illocutionary act is the minimal complete unit of human linguistic communication. Whenever we talk or write to each other, we are performing illocutionary acts.
    3.2 Contextual Aspects of Speech Acts
    3.2.1 More Than One Illocutions
    In our real life, speech acts’ realization is usually not sole, the interpersonal exchange is often not isolated by a few words, but constituted by many speech acts . There are several steps to complete a speech act. Like “apology” this speech act’s completion, it involves undertakes the responsibility to the expression, to provide the compensation, to make the explanation on own initiative and a series of related speech acts.
    The illocutionary act is the core of the speech acts theory, which includes the illocutionary force and the proposition content.
    Illocutionary force is the particular function of the utterance to be performed in a concrete communicative situation. Thus it is essential for communicative participants to properly understand the illocutionary force in each communicative activity.
    At the same time, the illocutionary force is a kind of communicative intention embodied by an illocutionary act, which is a special function realized by an utterance in a certain communicative situation.
    For instance: “Don’t be afraid” can have different illocutionary forces in different situations, such as “comforting” “encouraging” or “instigating”, etc. This special function of an utterance seems to be frequently seen by common speakers; however, it is after several decades of “language turn” that expounded it from the philosophical angle.
    3.2.2 Explicit and Implicit Speech Acts
    It is noticed that there are two major kinds of illocutionary force: explicit (on the surface and stated) as in “I challenge you to a match “and implicit (below the surface and unstated). “I will telephone you “is an implicit performance of a promise.
    Only the explicit can demonstrate explicitly why it completes the behavior, however, even if the speech acts are explicit, it is still much difficult to confirm what kind act it indicates. That is because, to complete some behavior, we may not use the explicit colloquial phrases, but the quite primitive methods, such as gestures and intonation.
    3.2.3 Direct and Indirect Speech Acts
    The majority of acts in everyday conversation are indirect.
    Take the simple utterance“It is cold in here.” for example. If the speaker only wants to tell the hearer the temperature at the moment he is speaking, then his language is direct. But if his real intention is a request or command to close the window, or turn on the air-conditioner, then his utterance is indirect. While uttering this sentence, he performs, simultaneously, two illocutionary acts—one is statement, the other command or request. Statement is the medium, while command is his real intention.
    Another example: Can you turn the music down? It is literally a question about the hearer’s capability to turn the music down, but it is meant primarily as a request to the hearer to turn it down, therefore, a request made by means of making a question. In such a case, one illocutionary acts performed indirectly by way of performing another.
    Searle (1969) classified conventional and non-conventional indirect speech acts, where the former are those illocutionary acts which are customarily used to make indirect speech acts.
    For the speaker and the hearer may not be conscious of the literal illocutionary force in those illocutionary acts. In Searle's view, the chief motivation for indirectness in such cases is politeness for the hearer. On the other hand, non-conventional indirect speech acts are more indeterminable than the conventional ones since they depend much more on the mutually shared background information and the context of situation.
    An English learner should know the basic concept of speech act theory especially the indirect speech act theory so that he can infer the illocutionary force of an indirect speech act in real communication.
    3.3 Sociolinguistic Aspects of Speech Acts
    3.3.1 Politeness
    Politeness appears to be a prevalent concept in human interaction, and to date, many models of politeness have been put forward in the literature articles.
    Politeness principle explains aspects of how people interpret each other’s meanings . To be polite, speakers attempt to give options, avoid intrusion, and make their interlocutor feel good. Departure from the politeness principle signals urgency, intimacy, aggression or unfriendliness. Not following the politeness principle may sometimes lead speakers to be untruthful. Although the politeness principle is universal, its realization varies between cultures. In the article Politeness phenomena in modern Chinese, it traces the origin of politeness in Chinese culture, and also formulates a different set of politeness maxims, which are more suitable to the Chinese environment. The maxims include tack maxim, generosity maxim, approbation maxim, modesty maxim, and agreement maxim and sympathy maxim .
    Effective operation of “politeness” is an important aspect in interpersonal communication, and thus is an important element in EFLT.
        Further more, propriety is very important in language communication, especially in cross-cultural communication. If a person says something grammatically incorrect, he is at worst condemned as “speaking badly”, but if he says something inappropriately, he will be judged as “behaving badly”, he will be considered to be insincere, untruthful, or deceitful. In short, pragmatic failure can do great harm to communication.
    3.3.2 Cross-cultural ness
    Few people may deny now that learning a foreign language well means more than merely mastering the pronunciation, grammar, words and idioms. It means learning also to see the world as native speakers of that language see it, learning the ways they use their language to reflect the ideas, customs, and behavior of their society . Learning a language, in fact, is inseparable from learning its culture. The first thing for the English learners to do is to become aware of the differences between Chinese and English cultures.

    上一页  [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]  下一页Asian and Western cultures share maximal differences; they are on the two ends of the scale. It means the least commonality to be found. People in the two communities do not share the same experiences, nor do they share the same perceptions. They do not view the world in the same way. Their life styles are vastly different, and their beliefs, values and attitudes are far from being the same. There are many cultural variables affecting communication: perception, verbal pattern, and nonverbal process.
    Let’s see an example:
    At a friend’s home, a Chinese student A gives a birthday present to her English friend B.
    B: Thank you. It’s beautiful.
    A: Really? Do you like it? (Or “Don’t mention it, it’s only a small thing.)
    In this example, B would be puzzled on hearing A’s answer if she wasn’t familiar with Chinese culture. According to B’s native way of dealing with this situation, the appropriate answer would better be “I’ m glad you like it.” Or something likes this.
    So a successful intercultural communicator has to be aware of the cultural factors affecting interaction.
    3.4 Choosing Appropriate Speech Act strategies
        Indeed, more than half of what we say is not literally what we mean, at least not entirely. Most of the time, we mean more than what we say, or something different from what we actually say, or even the opposite of what we say. Not that we are particularly devious or deliberately deceptive, but this is simply the way language works in communication. No matter how the language itself works, we should think much of the strategies in the speech acts.
    There are two strategies we should pay attention to, the “face” strategies and the politeness strategies.
    “Face”  is originally introduced by Goffman, which is also universal. However the politeness strategies are developed in order to save the hearer’s “face”. Two aspects of people’s feelings are involved with “face”. The first is the desire of the individual not to be imposed on—this is the “negative face”—while the second, “positive face” is the desire of the individual to be liked and approved of. Acting cooperatively, people try to build up their interlocutor’s positive face while trying to avoid posing threats to their negative face. Face threatening acts are acts that infringe on the hearer’s need to maintain his/her self-esteem, and to be respected.
    In conclusion, all these pragmatic principles are significant for the interpretation as well as the production of utterances. A learner should consciously know the existence of these principles and how these principles are observed in English-speaking countries. This is an important and indispensable task for the language learner in order to achieve comparatively high pragmatic competence
    Chapter 4: EFL Students’ Speech Act Competence Assessed
    4.1 Speech Act Strategies Analyzed
       As for the EFL students, they may not only focus on the language communication ability of language ability, but also have an eye on the language community strategies . If someone pay some attention on this aspect, he may cost less energy to match a satisfy result. Linguist M. Ca-Nile and M. Swain had drowned a conclusion that the four abilities for the communication are linguistic competence, sociolinguistic competence.
        Discourse competence and strategic competence. Among the four aspects the most important one is the Linguistic ability of the community. Social linguistics is that one has the ability of the expression different emotions on different occasions. In other words, in order to successfully carry out the exchange of words, the statements made by users should have a consistent with the social environment.
    4.1.1 Complaints
        From the above, we can say that in the process of language learning or using, the learner adopts various strategies consciously or subconsciously, there was a growing awareness that aptitude was not the governing factor in language success, implying that language achievement depended quite heavily on the individual learner's endeavor himself. The study of learning strategies, the process of learning, has been promoted since learning strategies promote autonomous learning. As we know, the virtual tone ‘should+do’, this model may express the Subjective desire and the hypothetical case ,in other aspects it may also has the ability to show someone’s surprise, suspicious, not happy about something and so on . For example when we say “You should do the thing earlier.” in the sentence it implies that the one may has some complains. Some students may show their feelings in this way.
    4.1.2 Thanks
        We show our thanks to others in different ways. Thank you, thanks may be the most frequently used words. If you pay attention to mother-tongues when they say thank you, may experience consonants ‘k’ here will be slightly muddy. Of course if you use a more formal thanks, please be sure that accurate pronunciation . For example, in English gratitude, appreciation of the "complex version," with the United States read to the sound very smoothly, the British if say this, it may come out very beautiful. And the word ‘grateful’ and ‘thankful’ may have the same meaning. Ingratiate may be uses to try to curry favor with someone, literal meaning is probably try to win one's favor. Another meaning used frequently can be expressed gratitude is appreciation. There is a formal thank called the tribute, we may use ‘pay tribute to’ in some place formal.
    4.1.3 Refusals
    If people must cooperate mutually in the human relations, so the speech must be carried out based in the harmony atmosphere. When we have a talk with others we usually agreed with others’ opinions, support their viewpoint, have the mutual recognition with they. When we express our refusals we can show our sorry. In this way, others may fell better than we refuse him directly. For example, when some one asks you how about your course, we answer them with this sentence that “does not ask.” and this may hurt other’s feelings . Another example, if someone asks “Could you come for a visit this afternoon?” “Maybe that’s some other day.” And this implies that I do not want to go today. With this others may fell much comfortable.
    It looks complies, but actually we just show our rejection. In such situation for instance “Could I speak to Jim?” “He is at a conference.” We can see that the speaker has turn off his responsibility.
    4.1.4 Requests
        In out daylily life we may meet the situation that we have the need to ask someone to do our favor. And in that situation we should to make ourselves become more politely to come to our own purpose. For example, we may use direct strategies. This may happen in such contest where the speaker’s interest is apparent from the locution. This transparency is derivable from the grammatical mood. For example when some one wants to other to turn down the TV, he may say: “please turn down the TV.”
         But in other situation, some one may to be shay to express their attitude directly, they may use conventional strategies, where the interpretation is aided by conventional usage, for an instance, with the same purpose he may say: “how about turn down the TV?” or “could you please turn down the TV,OK?”
         Furthermore we may see the situation that the utterance may not be interpreted as request, the interpretation as a request is strongly aided by the context. It includes strong or mild hints, such as: it is very late in the evening. In his word we can not see he is asking others to do something, but in fact he is just doing it.

    上一页  [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]  下一页4.1.5 Apologies
        Many researchers have carried on the classification of the apology strategy. And the most is based on to second language study research.  There are five different strategies to express one’s apology. Those are an expression of apology, a reason for the offense or an explanation or account, an acknowledgement of responsibility, offer repair, a promise of forbearance. Many of us use some of them to get other’s forgive. Here are some examples. “I am sorry to forget to give you the message.” In the sentence the speaker just to express his apology in a normal way. “I'm terribly sorry. I was busy with much work and missed it. I do promise that it'll never happen again” is another way to express the reason why he had forgotten to do and he promises not to make the same mistake any more. The high level learner compares pay great attention to use the recessive strategy while the opposite uses the direct way. They transform the language body to meet different needs. Furthermore in the official situation, they pay more attention to minutely persuasive and appropriate.
    4.1.6 Speech Act Situations
        In different situations people may use different methods to show their regret. When People choose apology strategy, the seriousness of the impact is a very important factor to the offensive. There are three division about this, slightly offensive, middle-level offensive, serious offensive . If we put the affront grave and the apology strategy's choice together in the same situation, we may discover that the lower affronts is, the less uses of strategy is. The second stander to divide the apology is the social distance of the two. The same level of offensive, in the possession of different people may have different consequences, such as be late for the meeting with the family and about the important people. The use of the strategy and style may be different.
    4.2 Method
        This paper focuses on the Chinese English learners Pragmatic competence of a specific speech act of showing their feelings. In this part we investigated their pragmatic awareness by collecting the answer of the students.
    4.2.1 Subjects
        When doing this research, we have considered the convenience of the researcher, and for the researchers, they tend to choose subjects that are readily available. We choose 186 subjects participate in the present study. The subjects in this study involve juniors from xx University, 90 juniors from School of Information Science, and 96 juniors from school of foreign language. They are respectively grouped. In the first group, there are 54 subjects who have passed the College English Test Band 4(CET4); the remaining 36 subjects are those who have not passed CET4. 35 of them are females and the other 55 are males. In the second group, there are 43 subjects who have passed CET4, and the rest of the 37 subjects have not passed CET4; among them there are 36 females and 54 males. Most of them have studied English for nine years, and begins learning English in middle school.
    4.2.2 Instruments
        In our research we choose observation method in data collecting. As for the EFL learning environment, it is difficult to collect authentic data and what’s more is the data collected in this way may be greatly influenced by gender, age and speaking context. The aim of the present study is to discuss the relationship between linguistic competence and pragmatic competence. We ask some of the students to finish a questionnaire to gather data.
    4.2.2.1 Production Questionnaires
        Firstly,the text permits us to gather a large amount of data on a wide range of difficult observe linguist. Secondly in the study we discuss in the literature review, respondents varied their apology strategies according to the social Power,social distance,and the severity of offence. The questionnaire applied is composed of 20 multiple choice questions and some questions should be explained. The testes are allowed to choose the most appropriate one from the listed choices . Some of the questions are used before, which may have an important profit from the function. And some questions are chosen from the questionnaire of which better suit the present learning conditions. The questions tested involve how to perform certain speech acts, how to produce the best expression to get known by others and also the different culture background between the Chinese students and the English speaking countries students. The testers’ pragmatic competence will be testes through this piece of questionnaire.
    4.2.2.2 Procedure
        The subjects of group A took part in the investigation on November 11th 2007, and the subjects of group B on November 15th 2007 .The quantitative investigation was administered by their English teacher. The questionnaires were handed out and collected by them in class. They were required to finish the questionnaire individually, and if they had problems about the test, they may ask their teachers for help, but they could not discuss with each other. And time was not limited. Therefore the problems of understanding the language in the questionnaire and the limitation of time could not be counted as factors influencing the choices.
    4.3 Data Analysis and Discussions
        In this study the researcher coded all the data,which  might influence the reliability of the research to a certain degree. The researcher consistently adopted the same criteria to code the data all the time. The percentage of each strategy use was employed to analyze the data. The percentage represented the number of choices made by the respondents out of the total number, which was potentially possible. Meanwhile,results were analyzed according to the types and frequency of strategy use and the Participants’ different attitude towards the changing factors.
    4.3.1 Score Analysis
        The data in this study revealed that the sophomores had a higher level of competence than the high school students. The sophomores may use more strategies than the high school students. Moreover,the sophomores could employ more purgative verbs and internal intensifiers and more ways to express the strategy of taking on responsibility than the high school students.  What’s more,the data provided little evidence of how the both groups respond to different situations. It may indicate that second language learners may acquire the ability to meet different situations. Therefore we can safely draw the conclusion that the foreign languages learners who have a higher degree of pragmatic awareness do not necessarily have a higher level of Production ability.
    4.3.2 Distribution Analysis
        All the interviewees, high school students and students in high schools, do not know clearly what pragmatic competence is, they can only explain pragmatic competence literally as the ability of using language. All the interviewees in the three groups do not know the pragmatic principles listed neither. About 65% of the high school students tell the researcher that context is the situation of using the language. While in the high school students only 50% of the total interviewees give the same answer. But for all the students, they cannot give concrete examples to support their ideas and just explain it in a theory way. This reflects that they are not consciously but only subconsciously aware of the signification and the significance of context. All the interviewees in both groups state that they do know that there are cultural differences between China and English speaking countries. This proves that the students know the existence of cultural differences, but they just know a little difference between the two cultures, many differences related with the deeper layer of culture are not mentioned. So the sophomores may have a little superiority than the high school students, but both of them may have improved the ability of pragmatic Awareness.

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